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Nature 雑草 フローラ/ファウナ

Springwatch on 28 March

170324 Sleedoorn 03
About 5~6m height

170324 Sleedoorn 04

Maybe beginning 10% blooming, When you consider its height it should not be Sloe (blackthorn) which is a typical shrub with thin stem. There are exceptions in every world.
170330 by pond a (6)
It doesn't look like small shrub but black bark and sharp thorns on twigs.
170324 Sleedoorn 01
I failed what it is at first sight.
This is the blackthorn [note *]Prunus spinosa

The melody : Spring has just come

170328 zwam 01
This mushroom on a cherry tree could be Phellinus tuberculosus

170328 Harigiri 01
Pprickly castor oil tree / ハリギリ / stekelboom
Kalopanax septemlobus

170328 hybride 01
New leaf and flower buds are opening

170328 hybride 02
Another combination is already clear what they are.
Butterbur / 紅蕗 / Groot hoefblad.
Petasites hybridus

170328 hybride 03
A mass of tubular flowers. One bundle has a small peduncle and concists of many tubular flowers. Some of them are open as a flower with 5 petals which is, in this case, male flower. It means this area is occupied by Rhizome (underground) network, thus all flowers are same clones, namely male.

170328 nisikigi 02
Look at brown wings

170328 nisikigi 01
Winged spindle /ニシキギ/ Japanse kardinaalshoed 
Euonymus alatus

170328 Petasite japonica 02
Lesser celandine / ヒメリュウキンカ / Speenkruid Ficaria verna
and an unique guest from Japan

170328 Petasite japonica 01
'Giant butterbur' / フキ=Fuki / Japanse groot hoefblad
Petasites japonicus  This is male exemplar 

170328 Petasite japonica 04
one group of bisexual flowers. Each flower has a long style which is surrounded by stamens which are coalesced as a ring.
170328 Petasite japonica 03

↓All exemplars are linked each other with underground root. It means here is male area.

170328 Petasite japonica 05

170328 sumomo 01

At this moment such beautiful blossom.
This is a kind of cherry, but not exact cherry.
It's called Cherry Plum, a species of plum.
Prunus cerasifera var.atropurpurea / ベニバスモモ

170328 sumomo 02
The sepals are warped downwards. Real cherry kinds, for example Japanese cherries have not such sepals. Only Wild cherry Prunus avium equips same kinds of downwards sepals.

170328 Tros vliel 02
This is a species close to Japanese elderberry, I think.

170328 Tros vliel 01
Red elderberry / 紅または山ニワトコ / Trosvlier
Sambucus racemosa
As the fruit ripens it hangs like a tassel of grapes.
European representative Sambucus nigra makes inverted triangle flowers.

170328 Tros vliel 03

I found this small tree nearby above red elderberry. It seems to be same genus with white edge leaves. Wings are recognized on twig. Apparently a cultivated garden variation. [note **]
170328 Tros vliel 04 Vlekje

* There is Japanese name of blackthorne, but sounds stupid. Jägermeister is one of my favour,. It is said that at the very beginning the liquor maker used ripe Blackshorn fruit as the main material. I do understand it very well.

** All plants you sea here is more or less ''cultivated forms'', that are mostly planted.


Nature 雑草 フローラ/ファウナ

10th October Field watch

Once upon a time there ware these ordinary lives in the village. Like this would I look back the past from the future?
Who knows two or three decades from now it will happen that these 'not special' flora, in other words, just simple weeds/trees, butterflies and mushrooms do not exist anymore. Hereunder I upload things in row that I took pictures during a coupple of hours walk on 10th October 2016.
[note 1]

161006 A1
Self-heal ウツボグサ Gewone brunel (Prunella vulgaris)
Brown dead plant after blooming, now new green leaves. They stay maybe as it is if coming winter is too warm.

Spindle セイヨウニシキギWilde Kardinaalsmus (Euonymus europaeus)
Very noticeable because of such attractive colors of fruits and leaves. Everywhere seedings. Why Spindle? Spidle for spining for textile was made by this wood. Kardinaalsmus in Dutch: Likened the red and orange of the fruit to the hat of Roman Catholic Cardinal. Japanese spindle ニシキギ(E. alatus) is also very popular in garden, used for flexible bow.

161006 A2
Birch boleteヤマイグチ Gewone berkenboleet (Leccinum scabrum
possible; other 'birch bolete' species.

161006 A3
Kichijo so キチジョウソウ (Reineckea carnea)
Japanese plant, 15 years ago I brought back a tiny root from Kyoto. Kichi-jo means to bring you Happiness.

161006 A4
Cherry laurel セイヨウバクチノキLaurierkers (Prunus laurocerasus f.)
this have long leaves and low height, one of many cultivations

161006 A5 Lethe butleri Ka 02
Ringlet リングレット蝶 Koevinkje (Aphantopus hyperantus)

161006 A7
Yama-bousi 山法師 Japanse kornoelje (Cornus kousa)
Edible fruits of Japanese dogwood

161006 A10
Red Admiral ヨーロッパアカタテハ Atalanta (Vanessa Atalanta)

161006 A7-2
possible one of Bovista =ダンゴタケ属
or Calvatia (=Langermania) = ノウタケ属 such as Giant puffball

161006 A11
Horse-chestnut セイヨウトチノキ Paardenkastanje(Aesculus hippocastanum)
White layer protects brown fruit. It is still soft and elegant. My 10 years old chestnut tree has made a dozen pieces of fruit in this autumn.

161006 A14
Trees of a row as the background are the birch. This also looks like a birch mushroom. Which species is it?
Another big one in front may be kicked by someone, it remains only split stem.

161006 A13
Probably Common sweet violet ニオイスミレ Maartsvioortje (Viola odorata)
Along back-corridor wall it grows many of these plants. No sun all day long.

161006 A15
Left; Wild teasel オニナベナ grote kaardebol(Dipsacus fullonum)
Right; St. Benedict's herb ダイコンソウgele nagelkruid (Geum urbanum). Can both weeds stay as it is in coming winter at corner of my back house?

Sweet chestnut ヨーロッパグリ Tamme kastanje (Castanea sativa)
This tree was planted a decade ago in front of my house. There are a plenty of fresh fruits,that are falling down. As Japanese proverb "Peach& Chestnut three years, Kaki (persimmon) eight years ", it was not so fast to make first fruits. The fruits appeared about three years ago.
Twice pinnate compound leaves of Udoウド (Aralia cordata)
Japanese word Udo seems a shrub as you see. Very known as "wild or mountain asparagus". Udo belongs to in fact grass plant as well as asparagus. Tara-no-ki タラノキ (Aralia elata) is no doubt tree, These Aralias are considered Two great heroes of the mountain-vegetable.
There are two types of Udo; green & white on the market. The white has been cultivated in underground room since Heian-period (about 10 century) It is said ''cultivated for Mikado = Kaiser in Kyoto. In 21 centuries there are some production places, for example, Tachikawa near Tokyo and Nagano prefecture. In Europa Norway and the Netherland as long as I certainly know. This image is taken, of course, here my village in the Netetherlands. .

A female Zanthoxylum tree with big thorns
サンショウ=Sansho: known as Japanese paper (Zanthoxylum piperitum), one of most favourite condiment in Japanese kitchen. There are many species within genus Zanthoxylum In the Northern Hemisphere. The male and female trees are in separate individuals. You need both trees and have to plant closely together. This image is taken 10 meters far away from that Udo.

Yasuda Hartige taart 01

I found this inside my freezer. Nothing to do things that I watched outside on 10th October. This kind of cake is called ''Hartige taart'' in Dutch, maybe ''Savoriness cake'' in English. Thaw naturally 1 hour. A best bites after such walk!

1. I have had three light equipments with me for just walk, without backpack. Right; Correct time and date, showing 10:10 and 10th October.. Left; 5 minutes faster than right-one, although both smartphones are same 4S. Left one is available for only Japanese area, probably 5 minutes difference on the same day (10th October) between Here and Japan! This black one takes quick general pictures as a reserve camera.
The Pentax compact degital camera has same square of smartphone in plan view. it can take 1cm closeup and rather far distance terephoto. However it is not always sharp-focus at all to make reasonable images.

symple toestel
The article in paper is about new apple moter ''iOS'', available from 5S.

Nature 雑草 フローラ/ファウナ

Fu-ro-siki 風呂敷 4 [Herb & Iroha]

At 1300 years ago in Japan many medicinal plants were written in history books such as Kojiki (古事記), Izumo-no-kuni Fudoki (出雲国風土記)and Honzo-wamyo (本草和名). 

Firstly Kojiki that I never read and could not read says the fact Japan is a land of Gods, in another words a land of Shintoism which is our principal natural believe. Secondary Izumo-no-kuni fudoki described mythologies in Izumo. There is a shrine known as Izumo-Taisha in where Ō-kuni-nushi (大国主) is enshrined. Might he be corresponded to Zeus in Greece gods system? Anyway both 'persons' stand in quite a complicated deep stories as well as India's budha world. The last one was a dictionary of madecinal plants.
[note 1]

出雲国風土記 col 03
Left; A hand-written copy of 'Izumo' : Nakajima's version 1817
Right; An area of Izumo, the eastern part of the Shimane Prefecture at present.

I have no idea what kind of herbs and medicinal plants were used at the time. Those historic literature are not available for ordinary public, because originals do not exist any more. Few handmade copies remains and are reserved by (domestic and foregin) cultural organizations and museums.
Needless to say, those of the detailed documentation has been published to researchers who are the specialist of not only ancient writings but also ancient medicine. They should understand such document that would be a kind of puzzle for ordinary people.

this is a society of above mentioned reserchers.
Iroha Hiragana en Kanji-2

That is why two graphic designs are adapted for a set of furoshiki-gift, I guess. The reason why gift is due to its academic founding fifty anniversary. An excellent combination!

Tsutsumi kata 02-3

In Europa Dokudami is planted sometimes in private gardens. The plant is very known in Japan, probably used as medicine in the time when the character did not exsist yet, although I don't know whether or not it was written in Kojiki. [note 2] Such medicinal ancient gras/tree is called the folk medicine which has no side effects, therefore have been used as therapeutics in long long tradition.

ドクダミ センブリ ゲンノショウコ 01 
Fish mint / ドクダミ=Dokudami (Houttuynia cordata)

Senburi and Gen-no-Shoko are representative Japanese folk medicines together with Dokudami. I would say Big Three about these plants. [note 3] Senburi's efficacy is likely for indigestion, loss of appetite, stomach pain, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. And Gen-no-shoko's efficacy : Diarrhea, chronic gastrointestinal disease and constipation. At last It is said Dokudami's fresh leaves work against purulent boil, and its thee is good to prevent diuretic, bowel movement and hypertension.
ドクダミ センブリ ゲンノショウコ 02
センブリ=Senburi (Swertia japonica)
It has been widely cultivated for medicine industry

ドクダミ センブリ ゲンノショウコ col 04
ゲンノショウコ, 現の証拠=Gen no Shoko (Geranium thunbergii)
Weeds belonging to Geranium, even in Netherlands there may be about 10 species.

1. Kojiki is Japan's oldest history book、edited by Yasumaro Oono, and peresented to Empress Genmei in 712. There are reportedly 79 plants in it. It is said that the compilation of Izumo-no-kuni Fudoki was ordered by Empress Genmei in 713 (=Wado 6), but was completed in era of Emperor Shomu in 733.

2. Doku means poison, Dami (←damari←tamari) means 'collected'/stay. People might think then: poison is collected in the plant because of its stinky smell when it was rubbed. But it is a edible.

3. Sen-buri → thousand-decoction. You make it even a thousand times of decoctions, there remains still a bitter taste.
Gen-no-Shoko → reality-of-the matter of fact. Virtually indicated evidence. In another word the plant has such effective po wer as medicine.

Nature 雑草 フローラ/ファウナ

Butterfly = Cho cho [1]

What does the hidden part in butterly tell?
The butterfly looks cheerful and pleasant, but would be sometimes unhappy like a coin with two sides.

More than 3 decades ago, ''this is German song isn't it!!'' so noticed my girl friend when ''Cho Cho'' had been flowing from a Walkman, of course with Japanese phrases. I am far away from music. Besides It was hardly information about it at the time. No PC, no internet. She was right because meanwhile it has been discovered unknown facts.

Cho Cho 14

Akitari Nomura and Luther Whiting Mason were contemporaries. The former was born in 1819 in Mikawa Japan, a Japanese literature scholar. The latter was in 1818 in Turner, Maine USA, a music educator. The pairs might cooperate to make 'Cho Cho', a school song on Japanese music curriculum. [note 1]
Between them there was a coordinator, Shuji Isawa who was in charge of education and very young as well as all government leaders. [note 2]

Their cooperation was due to socalled Westernization of the new Japan. After regime change in 1868 from Tokugawa period, the Meiji government took a policy in order to catch up the Western developed countries by means of gaining European academic culture and technology. Therefor young officials were dispatched to Europe and USA, at the same time hired specialists from there. Thus Music genre too.

Lullabies or children's song has been existing regardless of the era or ethnicity. No names of creators both in text and melody. There have been a plenty of variations in local areas. It is a genre of the folk song, presenting each of national traits and their music sensation.

Akitari Nomura created a text about butterfly entitled 'Cho Cho', which was a kind of assembly from butterfly-poem variety in Mikawa, middle of Honshu Japan.
Cho Cho 13

His text got a melody of ''Lightly Row'' that was a popular children song in beginning 19 century, singing about ship and wave. Mason might thought the melody match to the text of butterfly. It wasn't easy to let European music rhythm suit for Japanese lyrics, I guess. [note 3]

The USA song was a version of German "Hänschen klein". Why German song? Obviously Germans took then in major stream of USA immigration. [note 4]

German original song ↓"Hänschen klein" (translated in English "Little Hans".). Lyrics by Franz Wiedemann, 1821-1882年. It's said the melody might exist before 18 century. . 

Cho Chou Haenschen klein 楽譜

In November 1881 the Ministry of Education issued the "elementary school singing Collection 1st Edition" in where ''Cho Cho'' was published at first time.
Cho Cho 10

1. Nomura (1819-1902) gathered nursery rhyme in his home country Mikawa around 1874 by order of Isawa who was then the head of Aichi-normal school (teacher training institutions).

Mason (1818-1896) taught European music to Isawa, when the young Japanese studied at Bridge-Water Normal school in Boston Massachusetts. Mason later was invited in 1880 by Japanese ministry, during his short stay in Tokyo university he made up the base in Japanese westernized music. All matters like music installments, creating music academy and its teaching method were introduced through Mason .

2. Isawa (1851-1917) contributed to Japanese education in Meiji-era. His mission to USA (1875-1878) was to research Education. Concerning music he learned it by Whiting Mason. When Isawa became the head of Tokyo Normal School in 1879, he advised the Ministry of Education to hire Mason as music educator. In 1880-1882, he worked together with Mason, in fact as coordinator or organizer.

3. Compare Japanese national anthem, Kimigayo to British God Save the Queen. Slow tempo vs European church tradition. Both make you a little sleepy, I say, and differ obviously each other on melody-line as their traits.


Nature 雑草 フローラ/ファウナ

JulyWatch on Blue [青の七月観察]

The form of copulation
Lantaarntje 03-1
Mating wheel / Paringswiel / 交配の輪(形)
Blue-tailed damselfly / Lantaarntje (Ischnura elegans) [糸トンボ類の一つ]

The female sets her genital-opening under secondary copulative organ of the male (above: ♂). This copulation takes hours, also at slow peaceful flying in air.
Lantaarntje col 03-3

Here you see their living circumstance in "Common Rush" (Juncus effusus) / Pitrus in Dutch / イグサ
Lantaarntje col 03-4

In same pond there are ''still green Rush'' with tiny blue flower plants.
Myosotis palustris 07-5
its water depth is about 30 cm. I'm afraid of having no clear pictures, because right boot with hole got water inside.

Yellow flower is La petite douve (Ranunculus flammula) [Dutch︰Egel Boterbloem. イトキンポウゲ ]
Myosotis palustris met egelboterbloem (Ranunculus flammula)05-1

Diameter of all these blue flowers in this water is smaller than 3mm. while in other waters it is often bigger than 5mm. German Wikpedia says ; Die himmelblaue Krone ist bei einem Durchmesser von 4 bis 12 Millimetern tellerförmig..It is rather different measurements between 'mines' and 'German'. There could be different species, I do believe, however, it is ''Myosotis palustris'' (synonim, M. scorpioides), in another word ''Water Forget-Me-Not'' which is derived from German original ''Sumpf-Vergissmeinnicht ''.
.Myosotis palustris 05-2

Common skullcap (Dutch : Blauw glidkruid シソ科タツナミソウ属の一つ (Scutellaria galericulata)),
Blauw glidkruid (Scutellaria galericulata) 05-3
Dutch name indicates the very blue colour. It's ''Back schön'' blue.
Blauw glidkruid (Scutellaria galericulata) 05-2
The flowers appear by one of two on one side。Top half of flower looks like head of waterfowl.
Scutellaria galericulata Blauw glidkruid corrage 04 jpeg

Why mushroom? Dutch name : Blauwplaatstropharia. Its underside of the umbrella has often bluish tint, therefore the mushroom is named Blue Stropharia. This groep is not so bluish., In UK's name is the Cap stropharia or "garden giant", 10-20 cm capsize is seen often in gardens with wood chip. In Japan one of ordinary mushroom too (Stropharia rugosoannulata) {ハラタケ目モエギタケ科のモエギタケ属サケツバタケ: 柄につく輪/ツバがよく裂ける茸(タケ)}
Blauweplaatstoropharia 05-1
In Europe this is popular as an edible mushroom for mushrooms collectors in nature, while in Japan I think it is less popular to eat the storopharia. Besides I never see it in Japanese supermarket.

Two human life-size plants
Echium vulgare シベナガムラサキ05-2
Yellowers plant is Mullein (Dutch; Toorts) , sometimes to reach 2m height. Blue one is Echium vulgare, known as viper's bugloss and blueweed.
Echium vulgare シベナガムラサキ05-1
Such tall cases are rare for me. They seem to be nearly 2 m height although normaly around 60cm tall. Well its Dutch name is Slangenkruid that may be associated with snake. 'Slang' means long hose or snake. Its 5 redish anthers are remarkably long, therefor in fact 'slang'. The plant is useful for many inseks.
Echium vulgare 001-4 紫科シベナガムラサキ

Three plants in Bellflower family (Campanulaceae) from now ↓

Actually bellflowers are loved and favour by everybody. Why? because their colour is blue, I suppose. There are lylics and melodie as folk songs about Bellflowers such as The Bluebells of Scotland. [Japanese : スコットランドの釣鐘草]. It is said Bellflower Family covers more than 8000 speceis in the world. Hah I know just a few of them, but I do know they all have always 5 filaments and a style with several stigmas.

Next one↓is Rampion, (or Rover bellflower), Rapunzelklokje in Dutch. and Latin name 'Campanula rapunculus. キキョウ科 ホタルブクロ属 (Japanese speceis-name unknown). This species is native in European continent and was introduced to UK and Denmark etct. But an item in Red list in Netherlands. Height almost 60cm, slender stem has square cross-section. . . .
Campanula rapunculus キキョウ科ホタルブクロ属Rapunzelklokje 01-5

You recognize 5 filaments inside tube, Star shape with 5 petals
Campanula rapunculus キキョウ科 Rrampion bellflowerホタルブクロ属Rapunzelklokje 01-1

Men says a stigma has usually 3 parts, but I don't find them. Why?
Campanula rapunculus キキョウ科ホタルブクロ属Rapunzelklokje 01-9

A term ''Bluebell'' is a little complicated matter. at least for Britain including English and Scotish folks. The folk song The Bluebell of Scotland has been sung with various lylics through centuries. One of them says ''the Heathbell the Hairbell'' which is no doubt ''Campanula rotundifolia'' with hairlike narrow long leaves that you recognize by an image hereunder.
Grasklokje (Campanula rotundifolia) 05-12
Hairbell is called Grasklokje in Dutch, so that it grows in Grass field↓ ..
Grasklokje (Campanula rotundifolia) 05-9

[Calling a hairbell a bluebell is generally regarded by the English as a Scottish trait, yet this is by no means universal and has not been the case] (quoted from FLOLA CELTICA 144p).
Grasklokje (Campanula rotundifolia) 05-7

It may be simple ''from mouth to mouth'' tradition in both nations.since 16 century. In the Highlands, more or less on Scotland's western shores, you can witness to watch whole carpet of Bluebell. It is not Hairbell at all. But very favourable Wild Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) that was reportedly brought by the immigreted sailors and soldiers of Spanish Armada.
curved brown 5 filaments and 2-lobbed stigma.
Grasklokje (Campanula rotundifolia) 05-7-2

Sheep's bit scabious, (Jasione montana), Zandblauwtjes in Dutch which means Pretty Blue on Sand. The ''bit scabious''. explains another plants resembling to this blue flower and could be eten by sheeps. Wikipedia says as follow [a low-growing plant in the Campanulaceae family found in rocky places and upland regions of Europe and western Asia].Thus a plenty of places in my village too, in particular along discarded railway.
Zandblauwtje (Jasione montana) Campanulaceae 05-3
This plant has a kind of Flower head (synonym : Pseudanthium and Capitulum = 頭状花序) which is likely consists of Disk flowers. Yes it is similar with the daisy family (Compositae). But Blue colour instead of yellow!

Zandblauwtje (Jasione montana) Campanulaceae 05-2
''Starfish-shaped white things'' are standing out, that are 5 filaments, while two-lobbed stigma can be seen on top of style in head flower (bottom). Moreover you see there many ''disk flowers.'' Each flower has 5 blue long petals around white filaments (a little below in the center).

Zandblauwtje (Jasione montana) Campanulaceae 05-5

A butterfly sucking nectar↓is believed to a common copper (Lycaena phlaeas). ''Kleine vuurvlinder'' by Dutch.
Zandblauwtje (Jasione montana) Campanulaceae 05-8

At last blue sky and white cloud with Japanese Larix in July 2016


ken minatoya

Author:ken minatoya
Victor Westhoff(1916-2001)碑文Hij observeertからのHNを本名と苗字に先立つ屋号に変更。ウエストホフは生物フローラの相互生息環境を丹念に観察したBiotop概念の先駆者。ザザーッとフィールドを歩きつつ、こぼれ見える外史/雑人/雑草の風景


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