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Nostalgic Melody&Film 懐メロ&フィルム

A singer songwriter with an oil painter in 19th century [2nd part]

Yesterday Martin Luther King Day in US, It seems his birthday. 'TV journal' says, it's a federal holiday held on the third Monday of January. Hah at first time I learn this! The man is symbol for the civil equal rights of 'Black' [note 1]. The thema on yesterday's march may concern to several incidents in 2014, for example ''Unrest in Ferguson'' and ''Michael Brown'' shot dead by corps on August [note 2]..

Marti Luter King Speech 01

The ancestor of 'Black' came from Africa mostly. Dutch ''United East India company''(1602-1799), transported approximately 550.000 people from Ivory coast to the North America in the course of 17-18 centuries
[note 3]. They slaves were brought into the agriculture, in particular in cotton plantation in Southern US, as you know. It is described in detail in Uncle Tom's Cabin [note 4].

My Kentucky home 03 Eastman Johnson Negro Lifea the South ejb fig
[Negro Life at the South, by Eastman Johnson, is popularly known as Old Kentucky Home.] This explanetion and painting are quoted from a page of Wikpedia 'My Old Kentucky Home'

Foster's most works belong to Minstrel songs. Minstrel is an entertainment show, where white actors played in blackface [note 5]. His melodies and lylics were provided for a Blackface group. so that the group got commercial success. Foster sold apparently the exclusive rights of songs to the group. But it was not the time with the copyright.

Cypresses with Two Female Figures Sint Remy
This painting is one of his later life. It is clearly able to observe his own style that Van Gogh achieved in Arles. He was inspired by strong sunlight nearby Mediterranean sea and found the brush strokes like burning fire as if he were himself to watch the solar prominence.

The Kingdom of the Netherlands in the era of Vincent van Gogh forbid the slavery, although the West India company had been busy with the slavery business until beginning of 19th century [note 6].

Van Gogh diary or letters was published as a book in Dutch (nowadays in many languages) by Jo van Gogh-Bonger. I never read all of the book, but partly.You might find articles with a word 'slave' because there might have been a couple of portrait with black people. In fact he sketched and painted many ordinary people or just peasants in stead of rich and royal family. It would not be strange at all if his collection included portraits of African black persons. As the result of such circumstance, he could earn little with his art.Naturally he couldn't pay for it. Somehow he got someone who could sit for a while as a model.

It was very neccesary to get model for the painter who might suffer from Primarily Obsessional Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (also commonly called Purely Obsessional OCD, Pure-O) as well as poverty
[note 7]. There could be another interpretation why he cut down own ear. Because he was just hungry of painting after his friend Paul Gauguin left him alone.


【Note】:
1. ''I have a dream that ....'' the speech of Martin Luther King, Jr ( (Jan.15th1929–Apr.4th1968) ) took place on 28 August 1963, at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington D.C.

2. Since a few months ago, there has been demonstrations and riots by blacks and their support groups. , caused by white police. The 'White' corps arrested unfairly a black guy. Later he died due to "brutality"of police. People insists on that it was undoubtedly prejudice and racism against 'Black'.

3,. so is reported. "Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie" (VOC) in Dutch. Slavery is an phenomena since first memory of mankind. It extists even now like children labor and forced marriage. Maybe there would be a kind of slavery of each era?

4 Later they worked for industrial factories which was more dangerous than farming. ''Uncle Tom's Cabin'' is maybe an anti slavery novel, published in 1852, by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It is said an important source for Foster's teksts.

5. Minstrel : (Historical Terms) a medieval wandering musician who performed songs or recited poetry with instrumental accompaniment.

6. Official Duch name : De Geoktrooieerde West-Indische Compagnie, known as GWIC, was established by ''Republic of the Seven United Netherlands'' in 1675, ''given jurisdiction over the Atlantic slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America''. Its final end was 1792.
7. OCD ; ''also commonly called Purely Obsessional OCD, Pure-O, OCD without overt compulsions or with covert compulsions''.
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Victor Westhoff(1916-2001)碑文Hij observeertからのHNを本名と苗字に先立つ屋号に変更。ウエストホフは生物フローラの相互生息環境を丹念に観察したBiotop概念の先駆者。ザザーッとフィールドを歩きつつ、こぼれ見える外史/雑人/雑草の風景

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