ライン・ワール・マースの狭間から、草の如し徒然の観察八景。 政ごと/商いごと/言の葉ごと/遊びごと。

Nature 雑草 フローラ/ファウナ

Butterfly = Cho cho [1]

What does the hidden part in butterly tell?
The butterfly looks cheerful and pleasant, but would be sometimes unhappy like a coin with two sides.

More than 3 decades ago, ''this is German song isn't it!!'' so noticed my girl friend when ''Cho Cho'' had been flowing from a Walkman, of course with Japanese phrases. I am far away from music. Besides It was hardly information about it at the time. No PC, no internet. She was right because meanwhile it has been discovered unknown facts.

Cho Cho 14

Akitari Nomura and Luther Whiting Mason were contemporaries. The former was born in 1819 in Mikawa Japan, a Japanese literature scholar. The latter was in 1818 in Turner, Maine USA, a music educator. The pairs might cooperate to make 'Cho Cho', a school song on Japanese music curriculum. [note 1]
Between them there was a coordinator, Shuji Isawa who was in charge of education and very young as well as all government leaders. [note 2]

Their cooperation was due to socalled Westernization of the new Japan. After regime change in 1868 from Tokugawa period, the Meiji government took a policy in order to catch up the Western developed countries by means of gaining European academic culture and technology. Therefor young officials were dispatched to Europe and USA, at the same time hired specialists from there. Thus Music genre too.

Lullabies or children's song has been existing regardless of the era or ethnicity. No names of creators both in text and melody. There have been a plenty of variations in local areas. It is a genre of the folk song, presenting each of national traits and their music sensation.

Akitari Nomura created a text about butterfly entitled 'Cho Cho', which was a kind of assembly from butterfly-poem variety in Mikawa, middle of Honshu Japan.
Cho Cho 13

His text got a melody of ''Lightly Row'' that was a popular children song in beginning 19 century, singing about ship and wave. Mason might thought the melody match to the text of butterfly. It wasn't easy to let European music rhythm suit for Japanese lyrics, I guess. [note 3]

The USA song was a version of German "Hänschen klein". Why German song? Obviously Germans took then in major stream of USA immigration. [note 4]

German original song ↓"Hänschen klein" (translated in English "Little Hans".). Lyrics by Franz Wiedemann, 1821-1882年. It's said the melody might exist before 18 century. . 

Cho Chou Haenschen klein 楽譜

In November 1881 the Ministry of Education issued the "elementary school singing Collection 1st Edition" in where ''Cho Cho'' was published at first time.
Cho Cho 10

1. Nomura (1819-1902) gathered nursery rhyme in his home country Mikawa around 1874 by order of Isawa who was then the head of Aichi-normal school (teacher training institutions).

Mason (1818-1896) taught European music to Isawa, when the young Japanese studied at Bridge-Water Normal school in Boston Massachusetts. Mason later was invited in 1880 by Japanese ministry, during his short stay in Tokyo university he made up the base in Japanese westernized music. All matters like music installments, creating music academy and its teaching method were introduced through Mason .

2. Isawa (1851-1917) contributed to Japanese education in Meiji-era. His mission to USA (1875-1878) was to research Education. Concerning music he learned it by Whiting Mason. When Isawa became the head of Tokyo Normal School in 1879, he advised the Ministry of Education to hire Mason as music educator. In 1880-1882, he worked together with Mason, in fact as coordinator or organizer.

3. Compare Japanese national anthem, Kimigayo to British God Save the Queen. Slow tempo vs European church tradition. Both make you a little sleepy, I say, and differ obviously each other on melody-line as their traits.

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ken minatoya

Author:ken minatoya
Victor Westhoff(1916-2001)碑文Hij observeertからのHNを本名と苗字に先立つ屋号に変更。ウエストホフは生物フローラの相互生息環境を丹念に観察したBiotop概念の先駆者。ザザーッとフィールドを歩きつつ、こぼれ見える外史/雑人/雑草の風景


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